Johan H. Pot, Remco J.A. van Wensen, Jan G. Olsman
Fractures of the distal tibia and fibula are one of the most common types of fractures in adults.  Whereas stable and non or minimally displaced fractures can be treated with cast immobilization, unstable dislocated ankle fractures require open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with plate and screws.
Long term functional outcome is satisfying in most patients, but a number of patients have persistent ‘hardware related’ complaints and tenderness that ‘require’ elective hardware removal. Aside from painful hardware, some asymptomatic patients also want their hardware removed for other reasons. Although hardware removal is frequently undertaken, it is not without risk and the results are often unpredictable. 
The more commonly reported risks of hardware removal are iatrogenic (nerve) injury, infections, delay in wound healing and re-fractures. In addition to medical considerations there is also an economic impact such as physician costs, hospital fees, patient loss of work and productivity.  Reports in literature are not consistent concerning the incidence of painful hardware and the outcome and pain relief after hardware removal. [3-5] This study was designed to document the incidence of late pain after ORIF of ankle fractures and to analyse the outcome, expectations and complications after hardware removal.
Key words: Ankle, Ankle Fracture, FAOS, Hardware, ORIF Ankle
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